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2010年,朱利安阿桑奇在伦敦。他创立的维基解密为一代告密者和心怀不满的内部人士壮了气势,使得他们能够进行大规模的运作。ANDREWTESTAFORTHENEWYORKTIMES

The shaky video clips of Julian Assange’s arrest flashed around the 添下面world强制榨精 Thursday, the white-bearded prophet of the age of leaks being hauled by unsmiling security officers to a gray van marked Police。

朱利安阿桑奇(JulianAssange)周四被捕的局面被晃动的视频捕捉下来,敏捷在全宋祖英少女照球范围内传达。这位蓄着白胡子的泄密年代先知,被面无笑脸的安保人员拖上了一辆带有“差人”字样的灰色面包车。

“Wemustresist!”hecried。“Youcanresist!”Itwasascenethattheveryimage-consciousAssangemightappreciate:onemanliterallyfightingtheall-powerfulstate。

“咱们有必要反抗!”他喊道。“你们是能够做到的!”这是十分重视形象的阿桑奇可能会喜爱的场景:一个人真地在与有着无上权利的国家作战。

It was also the latest — and surely not the last — dramatic turn in a career marked by both brilliant achievement and dubious judgment。 Assange has long had a knack for celebrity, and as a tech-savvy, global, almost stateless figure, he captured the new influence the internet could give to individual citizens。

这也是他职业生计中最新的——当然也不会是终究一次——戏剧性转机,这段生计既有光辉的成果,也有令人起疑的判别。长期以来,阿桑奇深谙成名之道。作为一个通晓技能、四海为家、几乎没有国籍的人物,他抓住了互联网可能给个别民众带来的新影响力。

His creation of WikiLeaks helped empower a generation of whistleblowers and disgruntled insiders who could operate on an industrial scale, providing disclosures by the terabyte and enraging the powerful in many countries。 WikiLeaks collaborated closely with major world publications, including The New York Times, in the release of secret re萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪cords on the American-led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and a quarter-million confidential State 盛世宠妃宋明岚Department cables。

他创立的维基解密为一代告密者和心怀不满的内部人士壮了气势,使得他们能够进行大规模的运作,抛出巨量信息,令许多国家的当权者大发雷霆。维基解密与包含《纽约时报》在内的世界首要出版物密切协作,发布了美国主导的阿富汗和伊拉克战役的隐秘记载,以及25万份国务院秘要电报。

ButAssangehasalwayselicitedferventreactions:Hehasbeenhailedasaherooffreeinformation,ordespisedasatreacherouscriminalworthyofdeathbydrone—oftendependingonwhatWikiLeakshadrecentlybeenupto.Thoughhehasalwaysdescribedhimselfasajournalist,hehasbeenfartoomuchofanactivisttobesatisfiedwiththeroleofneutralandfair-mindedproviderofinformation。

但阿桑奇总是引发强贞德簿本烈的反响:他或许被誉为揭穿信息的英豪;或许被鄙视为一个变节的罪犯,应该被无人机处死——至于何种情绪,一般取决于维基解密最近在做什么。虽然他一向描述自己是一名记者,但他更像是一名活动分子,不满足于充任中立和公平的信息供给者人物。

周四,警方将阿桑奇带离厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆。EPA,VIASHUTTERSTOCK

He has proved a highly problematic, even embarrassing champion for the principles of press freedom and the public’s right to information, especially in recent years。 For the past seven, he was hiding out at Ecuador’s tiny red brick embassy in London, not just from American prosecutors, but also from Swedish sex-crime investigators, who eventually closed their case。

事实证明他是一个令人起疑乃至为难的新闻自由和大众知情权保卫者,尤其是在最近几年。在曩昔的七年里,他一向躲在厄瓜多尔驻伦敦大使馆里,那是一栋面积萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪很小的红砖修建。他要逃避的不仅仅是美国检察官,还有瑞典性犯罪查询人员,后者后来停止了案子的查询。

Assange, the world’s most famous self-proclaimed political refugee, lived there with his cat in a small corner room。 He continued to run WikiLe萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪aks, conducted news conferences before hundreds of fawning admirers from a balcony, rode his skateboard in the halls and played host to a parade of visitors, including Lady Gaga and Pamela Ander锁部叶风son, rumored to be a lover who brought with her vegan sandwiches。

作为世界上最著名的自封政治难民,阿桑奇和他的猫住在坐落一个旮旯的斗室间里。他持续运营维基解密,在阳台上对着数百名前来崇拜的仰慕者举办新闻发布会,在走廊玩滑板,款待各路访客,其间包含LadyGaga和帕梅拉安德森(PamelaAnderson),有传言萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪说后者是他的情人,带来了她的纯素三明治。

The arrest came at the end of a meandering legal path that began in 2010, when the Justice Department announced it was investigating WikiLeaks。 Obama administration officials eventually dropped the idea, persuaded by press advocates that prosecuting WikiLeaks would set a dangerous precedent because many mainstream news organizations regularly publish classified information。

阿桑奇的被捕是一条弯曲的法令之路的结尾,它始于2010年,其时美国司法部宣告将对维基解密打开查询。奥巴马政府终究抛弃了这个主意,他们被新闻自由的倡议人士压服,以为申述维基解密将创始一个风险的先例,由于许多干流新闻机构常常发布秘要信息。

In 2016, some of Assange’s former American sympathizers turned sharply against him after he made WikiLeaks into an enthusiastic instrument of Russia’s intervention in the American presidential election, doling out hacked Democratic emails to maximize their political effect, campaignin中国邮政投诉网站g against Hillary Clinton on Twitter and promoting a false cover story about the source of the leaks。

2016年,阿桑奇在美国的一些支持者开端倒戈,由于他把维基解密变成了一个热衷于为俄罗斯干涉美国总统大选效劳的东西,揭穿黑客盗取的民主党邮件,以最大极限地发挥它们的政治成效,还在Twitter上建议反希拉里克林顿的运动,力推一篇有关泄密源的不实报导。

That performance drew voluble praise from her opponent, Donald Trump, who regularly read from leaked Clinton campaign emails in his 2016 stump speeches and declared, “I love WikiLeaks。” But months later, while he was president, WikiLeaks posted a collection of clasnidel怎样读ssified documents on the CIA’s hacking tools, and Trump’s first CIA chief, Mike Pompeo, called Assange “a narcissist” and labeled the organization “a nonstate hostile intelligence service。”

这一番表现为他赢得了克林顿的竞选对手唐纳德特朗普的高度赞扬,后者在2016年进行的竞选讲演中常常读出走漏的希拉里竞选邮件,并声称“我爱维基解密”。但几个月后,在他当上总统后,维基解密发布了一系列有关中央情报局(CIA)黑客东西的秘要文件,特朗普政府的第一任CIA局长迈克庞皮欧(MikePompeo)称阿桑奇是“一个自恋狂”,并给该安排贴上了“非国家仇视情报机构”的标签。

2016年,阿桑奇把维基解密变成了一个热衷于为俄罗斯干涉美国总统大选效劳的东西,揭穿黑客盗取的民主党邮件,以最大极限地发挥它们的政治成效,还在Twitter上建议反希拉里克林顿的运动,力推一篇有关泄密源的不实报导。DOUGMILLS/THENEWYORKTIMES

His words were a harbinger of the single charge of conspiracy to commit computer intrusion against Assange that the Justice Department unsealed Thursday。

他的话预示了美国司法部周四发布的一项对阿桑奇密议施行电脑侵略的指控。

In some ways, Assange, 47, has never fully shed the rebellious, secretive ways of the precocious Australian teenager with a complicated family background who, with two pals, formed a hacking collective called the International Subversives。

在某些方面,现年47岁的阿桑奇从未彻底脱节那个早熟的澳大利亚少年背叛、隐秘的日子方式。他有着杂乱的家庭布景,少年时曾与两个朋友五鼠战长沙组成一个名为“世界颠覆者”(InternationalSubversives)的黑客安排。

1995年,阿桑奇在澳大利亚。IANKENINS/THEAGE,VIAFAIRFAXMEDIA,VIAGETTYIMAGES

By2006,whenhefoundedWikiLeaks,Assangehadadoptedanomadiclifestyle,roamingtheworldandpronouncingsometimescrypticprinciplesaboutsecrecyandinformation.By2008,hewaslivinginEastAfricaandexposingcorruptioninKenyaonthenewsite,whichhadpublishedmorethan1milliondocuments,includingsomefromtheIraqWarandtheGuantnamoprison,aswellasapotpourricoveringlessmomentoustopics:anearlyscriptforanIndianaJonesmovie,WesleySnipes’taxbill,anddocumentsfromtheChurchofScientologyandtheMormonchurch。

到2006年创立维基解密时,阿桑奇现已开端过着四处漂泊的日子,在世界各地周游,有时还宣告一些语焉不详的保密和信息准则。2008年,他日子在东非,在一个新网站上揭穿肯尼亚的糜烂状况,该网站发布了100万多万份文档,其间一些来自伊拉克战役和关塔那摩监狱,还有各式各样不那么重要的体裁:一部印第安纳琼斯(IndianaJones)电影的前期剧本,韦斯利斯奈普斯(WesleySnipes)的税单,以及山达基教会(ChurchofScientology)和摩门教会(theMormonchurch)的文件。

But it was Chelsea Manning, then a low-level intelligence analyst stationed at a base in Iraq, who really put WikiLeaks, and hence Assange, on the map。 Bored and harboring doubts about the war and American foreign policy, she began cosmd117pying thousands of documents from a classified network onto CDs that she marked as Lady Gaga songs to avoid detection。

可是,真实让维基解密乃至阿桑奇知名的,还要算其时驻扎在伊拉克某基地的初级情报剖析员切尔西曼宁(ChelseaManning)。出于对战役和美国交际政策的厌恶和疑虑,她把一个秘要网络中的数千份文件复制到光盘上,并将其标记为LadyGaga的歌曲,避免被发现。

切尔西•曼宁供给的很多秘要军事文件令维基解密扬名全球。TOBIASSCHWARZ/AGENCEFRANCE-PRESSE—GETTYIMAGES

Back in the United States, she called both The New York Times and The Washington Post before connecting with WikiLeaks, where Assa托付啦学妹nge and his fractious band of activist volunteers eagerly took up the cause in 2010。

回到美国后,她给《纽约时报》和《华盛顿邮报》都打了电话,之后才与维基解密取得了联络,2010年,阿桑奇和他的一群举动主义志愿者活跃发布了她供给的信息。

They first posted a devastating video of two American helicopter gunships in Iraq shooting at suspected enemies on the ground — two of whom were among those killed and turned out to be war correspondents for Reuters。

他们首要发布了一段令人震惊的视频,两架在伊拉克的美国装备直升机向地面上的可疑敌人射击,其间两名死者是路透社的战地记者。

That was followed by publication, in coordination with The Times and other mainstream news organizations, of 77,000 military documents from the war in Afghanistan and then 392,000 from the war in Iraq。

随后,在时报和其他干流新闻机构的协调下,维基解密宣告了阿富汗战役的7.7万份军事文件,以及伊拉克战役的39.2万份文件。

2003年,美国海军陆战队在伊拉克。维基解密与《纽约时报》和其他干流新闻机构协作,发布了数十万份战役文件,构成了“战役日志”。OZIERMUHAMMAD/THENEWYORKTIMES

The War Logs, as they were called, were published in coordin智诚联行ation with Le Monde, The Guardian and Der Spiegel, and they shed new light on civilian casualties, soldiers’ morale, the treatment of 盲女惊心detainees and the use of contractors。 An editor’s note explained that they provided “a real-time history oesu恶俗f the war,” but also struck an ambivalent chord about their source, WikiLeaks, which the note said “was not involved in the news organizations’ research, reporting, analysis and writing。”

这些被他们称为“战役日志”的文件是与《世界报》(LeMonde)、《卫报》(Guardian)和《明镜周刊》(DerSpiegel)伊人在协作发布的,让人们对布衣伤亡、战士士气、被羁押者的待遇以及承包商的运用有了新的了解。一份修改手记解说说,它们供给了“战役的实时前史”;但一起对它们的来历维基解密表示出对立心态,该手记中写道,维基解密“没有参加新闻机构的研讨、报导、剖析和写作”。

Human rights groups complained that WikiLeaks’ own publication of unredacted documents might put in danger Afghans who were named as working with the U.S。 military, and the Iraq documents were stripped of names。 When the diplomatic cables were published, The Times and other news organizations worked closely with WikiLeaks to redact names to protect vulnerable people — but later, in a dispute with a British editor, Assange decided simply to publish the massive cable collection without any edits。

人权安排责备维基解密发布未经涂黑的文件,会导致列知名字的那些与美国军方协作的阿富汗人面临风险,而伊拉克的文件中去掉了人名。发布交际电报时,时报和其他新闻机构曾与维基解密密切协作,对人名进行涂黑,以维护会晤临风险的人——但后来在与一名英国修改发生争执后李左飞,阿桑奇决议不做任何修改,直接发布很多电文。

Meanwhile, WikiLeaks was plagued with inf萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪ighting, often touched off by Assange’s astringent style and ego。 Two women complained to Swedish authorities about Assange’s sexual conduct with them, setting off a yearslong quest of investigators to question him。 Angry American politicians denounced Assange, whose distinctive face had become recognizable worldwide, and called for his arrest or even his execution。

与此一起,维基解密被内斗所困扰,它们往往是由阿桑奇的刻薄风格和自傲引发的。两名女人就阿桑奇与她们的性行为向瑞典当局报案,引发了查询人员对他长达一年的问讯。关于这个长着一张众所周知的特别面孔的人物,愤恨的美国政界人物大加呵斥,呼吁拘捕乃至处决他。

In 2012, Ecuador’s foreign minister announced that Assange was at the embassy in London and had asked for political asylum。 Small as they were, Assa我和妈nge’s quarters there did not c三生不幸撞上你ramp his desire to rem萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪ain in the limelight。 He pronounced his opinions on Twitter, briefly hosted a talk show on Russian television channel RT and continued to oversee the publication of leaked material。 He sent an associate to assist Edward Snowden, a former National Security Agency contractor, when he flew to Russia from Hong Kong — even though WikiLeaks had not played a role in Snowden’s leak of agency documents。

2012年,厄瓜多尔交际部长宣告阿桑奇在该国驻伦敦大使馆,而且申请了政治保护。他在那里的居处很小,但这并没有冲击他持续待在风口浪尖的希望。他在推特上宣告自己的观念,一度在俄罗斯电视台RT上掌管过一个说话节目,并持续监督走漏资料的发布。他派了一名帮手,帮忙前美国国家安全局承包商爱德华斯诺登(EdwardSnowden)从香港飞往俄罗斯——虽然维基解密并未在斯诺登走漏国家安全局文件一事中发挥作用。

Eventually, Assange’s isolation began to wear on him, a friend said Thursday, especially the long, lonely weekends in an essentially empty embassy that he could not leave。

周四,阿桑奇的一位朋友说,他总算开端感到孤立无助,尤其是被困在空荡荡的大使馆里度过的那些绵长而孤单的周末。

He was becoming deeply depressed and wondered about simply walking out, the friend 萤石云,泄密者、自封的政治难民:阿桑奇的争议人生,梁安琪said, speaking on the condition of anonymity。 And relations with his hosts were becoming deeply strained, even adversarial, as diplomats grew tired of his behavior。 Even Assange’s friends called him difficult, a narcissist with an outsize view of his importance and little interest in mundane matters like hygiene。

这位不肯泄漏名字的朋友说,他变得十分懊丧,想着要不要爽性直接走出去。跟着交际官们对他的行为日益厌恶,他与收留他的人的联系变得十分严重,乃至有歹意。连阿桑奇的朋友也称他很难共处,说他十分自恋,把自己看得过于重要,对清洁卫生等小事没什么爱好。

阿桑奇的猫在厄瓜多尔大使馆陪同他。HANNAHMCKAY/EUROPEANPRESSPHOTOAGENCY

A copy of a 2014 letter from Juan Falcon Puig, then Ecuador’s ambassador to Britain, to the Foreign Ministry, seen by The Times, complained of Assange’s penchant for riding a skateboard and playing soccer with visitors。 His skateboarding, Falcon said, had “damaged floors, walls and doors。” When a security guard tried to take his soccer ball, Assange “began to shake, insult and push the agent,” reclaimed the ball and then “launched the ball at his body,” the letter said。

时报看到了厄瓜多尔驻英国大使胡安法尔科尼普伊赫(JuanFalconiPuig)2014年写给交际部的一封信的副本,其间诉苦阿桑奇喜爱玩滑板,和来访者踢足球。法尔科尼说,他的滑板“损坏了地板、墙面和门”。信中说,一名保安企图拿走他的足球时,阿桑奇“开端颤栗,凌辱并推搡了那名工作人员”,然后“把球扔向他”。

Assange’s presence in the embassy long after the Ecuadorean president who granted him political asylum had been replaced finally became too much for the government in Quito。 Last year, it severed his internet access and limited his visitors。

给予阿桑奇政治保护的厄瓜多尔总统下台好久今后,阿桑奇仍然留在厄瓜多尔大使馆,终究,这让该国在基多的政府难以承受。上一年,政府切断了他的互联网接入,约束了他的访客。

AppearingintheWestminsterMagistrates’Court,hissilverhairtiedinabun,Assangelookedcomposedinanavysuit.Thesceneunderscoredtheobvious:thatAssangewillusehislegalpredicamentasanewplatformforhisdefianceofauthorityandhiscrusadeforWikiLeaks。

将一头银发盘成髻的阿桑奇出现在威斯敏斯特地方法院,身着深蓝色西装,看上去泰然处之。这一幕标明,阿桑奇明显将使用他的法令窘境作为一个新的渠道,应战威望,为维基解密而战。

Outsidethecourthouse,aflockofcameraswerepointingtowardtheguardedentrance,andagroupofprotesterschantedfeebly:“Free,free,freeAssange。”

在法院外,一堆摄像机对准了护卫威严的进口,一群抗议者无力地呼叫:“开释、开释、开释阿桑奇。”

周四阿桑奇被捕后,他的支持者集合在威斯敏斯特地方法院外。PETERSUMMERS/GETTYIMAGES

After Assange took his seat in court, a supporter wearing a scruffy fluorescent jacket gave him a thumbs-up from the public gallery。 Assange returned the gesture。

阿桑奇在法庭上就座后,一名身穿寒酸荧光色外套的支持者在大众旁听席上对他竖起大拇指。阿桑奇做了回应。

Waitingforthelawyerstoenter,Assangereadfromabook,whichheraisedforthemediatosee:“HistoryoftheNationalSecurityState,”byGoreVidal。

等候律师进场时,阿桑奇在读一本书,他把这本书拿给媒体看:戈尔维达尔(GoreVidal)的《国安国家史》(HistoryoftheNationalSecurityState)。

作者:ScottShane,StevenErlanger

NicholasCasey、PalkoKarasz、IlianaMagra和JosMaraLenCabrera对本文有报导奉献。

翻译:晋其角、杜然

金雨淳

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